Want to build a data journalism team? You'll need these three people

When I started using software to analyze data as a reporter in the late 1980s, "data journalism" ended once my stories were published in the newspaper.

Now the publication of the story is just the beginning. The same data can also be turned into compelling visualizations and into news applications that people can use long after the story is published. So data journalism — which was mostly a one-person job when I started doing it — is now a team sport.

So if you're running a news organization that wants to start doing data journalism, how should you proceed? At the American Society of News Editors conference last week in Washington, I argued that news leaders need to think about three dimensions of data journalism -- and three different types of journalism skills. Here's the graphic I showed them:

venn-3-dimensions-of-data-journalism

The point of the diagram is that to do data journalism well, a news organization needs to employ people with three discrete sets of skills. The numbered areas on the graphic represent people or jobs that blend more than one of these skills, and it's certainly great when a news organization can find someone who can do more than one thing well. But typically, the skills involved in data journalism will be found in at least three different people.

Here's what I think are the three dimensions of data journalism:

  • Computer-assisted reporter: These journalists typically start as news reporters and develop expertise in obtaining, analyzing and finding newsworthy angles in data. (When this discipline emerged in the late 1980s, journalists called it "computer-assisted reporting," a term that is still commonly used.) These journalists have a "data state of mind" for reporting and know how to query (or interview) data to discover the most interesting and relevant findings. They typically use spreadsheets, database and mapping software, but many are now also acquiring programming skills so they can simplify some of their work -- for instance, writing scrapers that pull down data from websites that don't offer API's or data downloads.
  • News applications developer: These are the newest data journalists to arrive in newsrooms, either moving from careers in computer programming or learning programming skills as part of their journalistic work. Their job is to figure out how best to make data available to users online. They have hands-on skills in back-end programming, database configuration and administration, as well as HTML, CSS and JavaScript so they can build the interface to their applications.
  • Data visualization specialist: Historically news organizations had graphic artists whose job was to create static graphics that illustrated data-driven (and other) stories. As graphic artists did when they created static graphics, data visualization specialists understand how to present data in interesting and accessible ways, and they understand the principles of good information design. But since graphics on the Web can be clickable and interactive, these journalists increasingly do front-end programming and make use of open-source Javascript libraries such as D3.


All of these disciplines have historic roots in news organizations. The computer-assisted reporter worked on the city desk, the news applications developer was probably a programmer for the company's business operations, and the data visualization specialist was a graphic artist. As their jobs have evolved, though, they all increasingly need programming skills.

News organizations seeking to fill these roles are finding it difficult. Quite simply, there is more demand for people with these skills -- both inside and outside of journalism -- than there are people qualified to fill them. At the ASNE panel, "Data Journalism: The Myths and the Magic," I argued that news organizations need to take a long-term view and "grow your own talent." This means identifying current staff members with potential to develop these skills and recruiting promising college students who can build their skills as interns or part-time employees.

Among current staff members, potential computer-assisted reporters can be identified by their use of spreadsheet or database software in their work, their comfort with math and data, and the way they use numbers effectively in their stories. Potential news applications developers might be working in a news organization's IT department, but can be identified by their interest in journalism, their participation in "open government" initiatives and their use of contemporary programing languages such as Ruby and Python. And potential data visualization specialists can be identified by their interest in working on data-intensive graphics, their comfort with math and data and possibly some prior experience with mapping applications or JavaScript.

The kind of people who do data journalism are, of course, the core audience for the Knight Lab blog. Do you see yourself in this graphic? Are you a computer-assisted reporter, a news applications developer or a data visualization specialist? Or maybe you fit into one of the numbered areas where these skill sets overlap? Let us know in the comments below — or on Twitter mentioning @knightlab and the hashtag "#datadimensions."

About the author

Rich Gordon

Professor and Director of Digital Innovation

Journalism/tech intersection, my passion for 25 years, data journalism, Miami Herald web director, now hacker journalism.

Latest Posts

  • A Google Spreadsheets change affecting TimelineJS users

    Google recently changed something about their Sheets service which is causing many people to run into an error when they are making a new timeline. Note: there should be no impact on existing timelines! After this change, many of you click on the "preview" and get this message: An unexpected error occurred trying to read your spreadsheet data [SyntaxError] Timeline configuration has no events. There is a straightforward work-around, but it requires those of you who have...

    Continue Reading

  • How Americans think and feel about gun violence

    A man killed his wife, then himself. I want you to see his face and learn that he enjoyed fishing with his grandchildren. A small-time drug dealer is shot by two men in a parking lot. I find his Facebook profile and a photo shows him striking a playfully irreverent pose, giving the camera the middle finger. The photo’s comments take a mournful turn after a certain date. “Rest easy bro ???” Gun Memorial runs...

    Continue Reading

  • Software developers interested in journalism: Northwestern and The Washington Post want you!

    Northwestern University and The Washington Post are offering a unique opportunity for two talented software developers interested in applying their programming skills in media and journalism. Here’s the proposition: (1) a full-tuition scholarship to earn a master’s degree in journalism at Northwestern University, followed by (2) a six-month paid internship with The Post’s world-class engineering team, with the possibility of subsequent full-time employment. These opportunities are made possible by the John S. and James L....

    Continue Reading

  • What happened when Gun Memorial let anyone contribute directly to victim profiles

    If you’re reporting local or niche news, there’s a good chance that your audience collectively knows more about the story than you do. That’s especially true for us at Gun Memorial, a small publication with a nationwide mission of covering every American who is shot dead. In our latest, mostly successful, experiment, we let readers add to our stories without editor intervention. This article shares some lessons from that experience. Asking for reader contributions A...

    Continue Reading

  • How conversational interfaces make the internet more accessible for everyone

    This story is part of a series on bringing the journalism we produce to as many people as possible, regardless of language, access to technology, or physical capability. Find the series introduction, as well as a list of published stories here. In 2004, human-computer interaction professor Alan Dix published the third edition of Human-Computer Interaction along with his colleagues, Janet Finley, Gregory Abowd, and Russell Beale. In a chapter called “The Interaction,” the authors wrote...

    Continue Reading

  • Three tools to help you make colorblind-friendly graphics

    This story is part of a series on bringing the journalism we produce to as many people as possible, regardless of language, access to technology, or physical capability. Find the series introduction, as well as a list of published stories here. I am one of the 8% of men of Northern European descent who suffers from red-green colorblindness. Specifically, I have a mild case of protanopia (also called protanomaly), which means that my eyes lack...

    Continue Reading

Storytelling Tools

We build easy-to-use tools that can help you tell better stories.

View More